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Présentation de soutenance de thèse

Precise Cooperative Positioning of Low-Cost Mobiles in an Urban Environment

Auteur : Verheyde Thomas

Defended on February 10, 2023.

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In recent years, our society has been preparing for a paradigm shift toward the hyperconnectivity of urban areas. This highly anticipated rise of connected smart city centers is led by the development of low-cost connected smartphone devices owned by each one of us. In this context, the demand for low-cost, high-precision localization solutions is driven by the development of novel autonomous systems. After Google announced the release of Android GNSS raw data measurements on mobile devices, the enthusiasm around those low-cost positioning devices quickly grew in the scientific community. The increasing need of Location Based Services (LBS) provoked the rapid evolution of smartphones embedded low-cost Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) chipsets within the last few years. Most Android devices are now equipped with multi-constellation and multi-frequency positioning units. Preliminary studies explored the implementation of advanced positioning algorithms aiming at answering the demand for precise navigation and positioning on mobile devices. However, various drawbacks prevent the realization of above-mentioned techniques on hand-held mobiles. Smartphones positioning capabilities are limited by the tight-integration of hardware components within the device. Integrated low-cost components, such as the linearly polarized antenna, are unoptimized for acquiring multi-frequency GNSS signals and their operation in constrained environment quickly becomes a challenge for mitigating disruptive multipath events. Moreover, due to a fierce technological competition between chipset manufacturers, embedded GNSS receivers have been conceived to act as ”blackbox” processes. The receiver parameterization is kept confidential and only GNSS raw data measurements are outputted to the user. In order to overcome those difficulties, this research work ambitions to develop a collaborative network positioning system between smartphones. A collaborative system is defined as a set of inter-connected users exchanging GNSS data in order to enhance network’s users positioning performance. The implementation of a cooperative smartphone network takes advantage of the tremendous number of connected Android devices present in today’s city centers for refining and improving users position accuracy and integrity in urban environment. This research thesis presents a thorough analysis of Android GNSS raw data measurements aiming at lifting the ambiguity generated by receivers’ ”black-box” processes on a wide variety of Android smartphone brand and models. A wide data collection campaign, on 7 different smartphone models in real-life urban conditions, has been conducted for assessing the positioning performance of those contemporary low-cost devices. After grasping the receivers’ mechanisms, the implementation of Android GNSS raw data measurements in collaborative positioning algorithm has been investigated. An innovative smartphone-based double code difference method has been employed to compute the inter-phone distance between network’s users, named Inter-Phone Ranging (IPR). This technique was tested for nominal and urban scenario cases and has demonstrated its reliability for collaborative positioning implementation. Finally, a smartphone-based cooperative engine, called SmartCoop, was developed and evaluated. This software-based engine is integrated within the cooperative network infrastructure for delivering accurate positioning solutions to network’s users. This collaborative estimation technique exploits the previously computed IPR ranges in a non-linear constrained optimization problem. An experimental protocol has been put in place in order to determine the estimation method efficiency through a series of simulation runs for both nominal and urban scenarios. The presented results analysis supports our hypothesis that smartphone-based collaborative engine enhances Android positioning performance in urban canyon.

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Communications numériques / Localisation et navigation

Article de journal

Accounting for Acceleration – Signal Parameters Estimation Performance Limits in High Dynamics Applications

Auteurs : Mc Phee Hamish Scott, Ortega Espluga Lorenzo, Vilà-Valls Jordi et Chaumette Eric

IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Vol 59, Issue 1, pp 610-622, February 2023.

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The derivation of estimation lower bounds is paramount to designing and assessing the performance of new estimators. A lot of effort has been devoted to the range-velocity estimation problem, a fundamental stage on several applications, but very few works deal with acceleration, being a key aspect in high dynamics applications. Considering a generic band-limited signal formulation, we derive a new general compact form Cramér-Rao bound (CRB) expression for joint time-delay, Doppler stretch, and acceleration estimation. This generalizes and expands upon known delay/Doppler estimation CRB results for both wideband and narrowband signals. This new formulation, especially easy to use, is created based on baseband signal samples, making it valid for a variety of remote sensors. The new CRB expressions are illustrated and validated with representative GPS L1 C/A and Linear Frequency Modulated (LFM) chirp band-limited signals. The mean square error (MSE) of a misspecified estimator (conventional delay/Doppler) is compared with the derived bound. The comparison indicates that for some acceleration ranges the misspecified estimator outperforms a well specified estimator that accounts for acceleration.

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Traitement du signal et des images / Localisation et navigation et Systèmes spatiaux de communication

Séminaire

Caractérisation et Optimisation des Amplificateurs Non Linéaires

Auteur : Sombrin Jacques B.

Presentation at ONERA Toulouse, February 1, 2023.

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Communications numériques / Systèmes spatiaux de communication

Article de conférence

A Robust Time Scale Based on Maximum Likelihood Estimation

Auteurs : Mc Phee Hamish Scott, Tourneret Jean-Yves, Valat David, Paimblanc Philippe, Delporte Jérôme et Gregoire Yoan

In Proc. Institute of Navigation Precise Time and Time Interval Systems and Applications (PTTI), Long Beach, California-USA, January 23-26, 2023.

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This paper introduces a new statistical model for clock phases assuming a multivariate Gaussian distribution for the clock phase deviations from a common time scale. This model allows us to derive a maximum likelihood estimator for the clock phases, which is consistent with the current methods of computing a common time scale for a collection of clocks. Detailing a statistical model of the clock phases, which assumes a Gaussian distribution allows us to find the MLE for each clock’s phase deviation from a common time scale. For verification, the MLE for the clock phases is shown to be consistent with the result of the existing basic time scale equation. The statistical distribution of the frequency states resulting from this statistical model is Gaussian over a window of past time instants. This property can be used to design a new time scale based on the maximum likelihood estimator of frequency and frequency variances that are alternatives to the exponential filters designed for AT1. With the appropriate number of past frequency samples, this MLE has identical performance to the optimal AT1 algorithm in a nominal context. The statistical distribution of the frequency when the clock suffers a phase jump anomaly is then identified as a Student’s t-distribution. The Student’s t-distribution models the statistics of datasets contaminated by outliers, leading to the derivation of a different MLE that is robust to those outliers. The time scale using the robust MLE provides estimates of each clock’s frequency and frequency variance that are unaffected by phase jump anomalies and improves the long-term frequency stability when each clock in the ensemble experiences phase jump anomalies within some window of time.

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Traitement du signal et des images / Localisation et navigation

Article de journal

Delay Optimization of Conventional Non-Coherent Differential CPM Detection

Auteurs : Jerbi Anouar, Amis Karine, Guilloud Frédéric et Benaddi Tarik

IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 27, issue 1, pp. 234-238, January, 2023.

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The conventional non-coherent differential detection of continuous phase modulations (CPM) is quite robust to channel impairments such as phase and Doppler shifts. Its implementation is on top of that simple. It consists in multiplying the received baseband signal by its conjugate version delayed by one symbol period. However it suffers from a signal-to-noise ratio gap compared to the optimum coherent detection. In this paper, we improve the error rate performance of the conventional differential detection by using a delay higher than one symbol period. We derive the trellis description as well as the branch and cumulative metrics that take into account a delay of K symbol periods. We then determine an optimized delay K opt based on the minimum Euclidean distance between two differential signals for some popular CPM formats. The optimized values are confirmed by error rate simulations.

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Communications numériques / Systèmes de communication aéronautiques et Systèmes spatiaux de communication

Clean-to-Composite Bound Ratio: A Multipath Criterion for GNSS Signal Design and Analysis

Auteurs : Lubeigt Corentin, Ortega Espluga Lorenzo, Vilà-Valls Jordi, Lestarquit Laurent et Chaumette Eric

IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, vol. 58, issue 6, pp. 5412-5424, December, 2022.

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Multipath is one of the most challenging propagation conditions affecting Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), which must be mitigated in order to obtain reliable navigation information. In any case, the random multipath nature makes it difficult to anticipate and overcome. Therefore, for legacy GNSS signal performance assessment, modern GNSS signal design and future GNSS-based applications, robustness to multipath is a fundamental criterion. Different multipath metrics exist in the literature, such as the multipath error envelope, usually leading to analyses only valid for a dedicated receiver/signal combination and only providing information on the bias. This paper presents a general criterion to characterize the multipath robustness of a generic band-limited signal (e.g., GNSS or radar), considering the joint delay-Doppler and phase estimation. This criterion is based on the Cramr-Rao bound, which makes it universal, regardless the receiver architecture and the signal under analysis, and provides information on the actual achievable performance in terms of estimated time-delay (i.e., pseudo-range) and Doppler frequency variances.

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Traitement du signal et des images et Réseaux / Localisation et navigation

Note technique

Details on Impulse Response Estimation and Size Determination

Auteurs : Lubeigt Corentin, Ortega Espluga Lorenzo, Chaumette Eric et Vilà-Valls Jordi

This is a supplementary material associated with the article "Band-limited impulse response estimation performance" that can be found, in the online version, at doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sigpro.2023.108998.

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Traitement du signal et des images / Localisation et navigation

Séminaire

Matched, mismatched and semiparametric inference in elliptical distributions

Auteur : Fortunati Stefano

Seminar of TeSA, Toulouse, November 17, 2022.

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Traitement du signal et des images / Systèmes de communication aéronautiques, Observation de la Terre, Localisation et navigation et Systèmes spatiaux de communication

Data Driven Optical Coding Optimization in Computational Imaging

Auteur : Arguello Fuentes Henry

Seminar of TeSA, Toulouse, October 25, 2022.

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Traitement du signal et des images / Systèmes de communication aéronautiques, Observation de la Terre, Localisation et navigation et Systèmes spatiaux de communication

Thèse de Doctorat

Apprentissage profond pour la compression embarquée d'images d'observation de la Terre.

Auteur : Alves de Oliveira Vinicius

Defended on October 21, 2022.

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The new generation of satellite instruments enables the acquisition of images with evergrowing spectral and spatial resolutions. The counterpart is that an increasing amount of data must be processed and transmitted to the ground. Onboard image compression becomes thus crucial to preserve transmission channel bandwidth and reduce data transmission time. Recently, convolutional neural networks have shown outstanding results for lossy image compression compared to traditional compression schemes, however, at the cost of a high computational complexity. Autoencoder architectures are trained end-to-end, taking beneĄt from extensive datasets and computing power available on mighty clusters. Consequently, the potential contributions and feasibility of deep learning techniques for onboard compression are arousing great interest. In this context, nevertheless, computational resources are subject to severe limitations: a trade-off between compression performance and complexity must be established. In this thesis, the main objective is to adapt learned compression frameworks to onboard compression, simplifying them and training them with speciĄc images. In a Ąrst step, we propose simplifying these architectures as much as possible while preserving high performance, particularly maintaining the adaptability to handle diverse input images. In a second step, we investigate how such architectures can further be improved by aggregating other functionalities such as denoising. Thus, we intend to incorporate denoising, either considering the above mentioned compression architectures for joint compression and denoising concurrently or as a sequential approach. The sequential approach consists in using, on the ground, a different architecture to denoise the images issued from the preceding learned compression framework. By running experiments on simulated but realistic satellite images, we show that the proposed simpliĄcations to the learned compression framework result in considerably lower complexity while maintaining high performance. Concerning learned compression and denoising, the joint and sequential approaches are beneĄcial and complementary, allowing to surpass the CNES imaging system performance, and thus opening the path towards operational compression and denoising pipelines for satellite images.

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Traitement du signal et des images / Observation de la Terre

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