Publications

Articles, Thèses, Brevets, Séminaires, Livres, Notes techniques

Recherche

Article de journal

CRC-Based Detection Algorithms for AIS Signals Received by Satellite

Auteurs : Prévost Raoul, Coulon Martial, Bonacci David, Le Maitre Julia, Millerioux Jean-Pierre et Tourneret Jean-Yves

Int. J. Satell. Commun. Network., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 157-176, July/August, 2013.

Télécharger le document

This paper addresses the problem of demodulating signals transmitted in the automatic identification system. The main characteristics of such signals consist of two points: (i) they are modulated using a trellis-coded modulation, more precisely a Gaussian minimum shift keying modulation; and (ii) they are submitted to a bit stuffing procedure, which makes more difficult the detection of the transmitted information bits. This paper presents several demodulation algorithms developed in different contexts: mono-user and multi-user transmissions, and known/unknown phase shift. The proposed receiver uses the cyclic redundancy check (CRC) present in the automatic identification system signals for error correction and not for error detection only. By using this CRC, a particular Viterbi algorithm, on the basis of a so-called extended trellis, is developed. This trellis is defined by extended states composed of a trellis code state and a CRC state. Moreover, specific conditional transitions are defined to take into account the possible presence of stuffing bits. The algorithms proposed in the multi-user scenario present a small increase of computation complexity with respect to the mono-user algorithms. Some performance results are presented for several scenarios in the context of the automatic identification system and compared with those of existing techniques developed in similar scenarios.

Lire la suite

Communications numériques / Systèmes spatiaux de communication

Article de conférence

Mitigation of TACAN/DME interferences for L5/E5 space-borne GNSS receivers in LEO. First Simulation results with focus on Radio-Occultation missions

Auteurs : Lestarquit Laurent, Dulery Christelle, Prévost Raoul et Iervolino Mariano

NAVITEC, ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, April 5-7, 2022.

Télécharger le document

At their design time, GPS L5 and GALILEO E5a/E5b signals compatibility with TACAN/DME was studied for aeronautical users with altitude limited up to 40,000 feet, but not for space-borne users. Aircraft would see a few strong pulses and a mitigation technique as simple as pulse blanking would usually work as mitigation means. For space-borne GNSS receivers in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), if the larger free space losses lead to weaker received TACAN/DME signals, the number of beacons in visibility is much higher, reaching in the worst locations a total over two hundred with more than half of them having a peak power above or close to the noise floor, making time blanking a poor mitigation means. Therefore, other mitigation techniques performances need to be assessed in order to determine which techniques are best suited. A simulation tool was developed to compute the post correlation C/No degradation due to TACAN/DME on a LEO with and without mitigation means enabled. The equivalent post-correlation noise (No) increase due to TACAN/DME, or what remains after a mitigation technique is applied, is simulated using the Spectral Separation Coefficient (SSC) methodology to emulate the effect of GNSS signal de-spreading in the receiver correlation process. The part of the useful signal carrier suppressed by the application of a mitigation technique (time blanking and/or frequency notch filtering) is taken into account in the simulation. This study is focusing on radio-occultation (RO) missions which are the more sensitive to TACAN/DME interferences. Indeed, a medium-gain antenna (9–18 dB typical) is steered toward the earth limb resulting in having many TACAN/DME transmitters inside its main lobe. This configuration can lead to a high received power from them, as the LEO RO satellite is also in their main antenna lobe. In this configuration, the C/No degradation, plotted on a geographic map can reach up to 13.8 dB in the absence of mitigation over the European TACAN/DME hotspot. Several promising mitigation techniques have been included in the simulation tool to determine which one shall be implemented on board a LEO RO satellite mission: time domain pulse blanking, Frequency Domain Adaptive Filtering (FDAF) or hybrid blanking. We also considered implementing pulse cancellation, an attractive technique in theory, but not so in practice due to the deviation of the actual transmitted signals with respect to their theoretical models. As anticipated, pulse blanking does not perform well at the LEO orbit. It can be actually worse than doing nothing when there is a large number of TACAN/DME transmitters in visibility since it leads to a high loss in useful GNSS signals during the blanking process. As detailed in this paper, hybrid time domain and frequency domain methods are more effective when frequency notch filtering is applied over a limited time window . For FDAF, windows have fixed boundaries, independently of the presence of interfering pulses, whereas in the hybrid method, the time windows are centered on the detected pulses. The FDAF method reduced the peak interference down to 5.6 dB. The hybrid blanking method has the best performances with a worst degradation which can be reduced to 4.3 dB over the European hotspot.

Lire la suite

Traitement du signal et des images / Observation de la Terre et Localisation et navigation

Utilisation partielle du CRC pour la correction d'erreurs des signaux AIS reçus par satellite

Auteurs : Prévost Raoul, Coulon Martial, Bonacci David, Le Maitre Julia, Millerioux Jean-Pierre et Tourneret Jean-Yves

In Proc. Groupement de Recherche en Traitement du Signal et des Images (GRETSI), September 8-11, 2015.

Télécharger le document

This paper deals with the demodulation of automatic identification system (AIS) signals received by a satellite. More precisely, an error correction algorithm is presented, whose computational complexity is reduced with respect to that of a previously considered approach. This latter approach makes use of the cyclic redundancy check (CRC) of a message as redundancy, in order to correct transmission errors. In this paper, the CRC is also considered as a correction tool, but only a part of it is used for that purpose; the remaining part is only used as an error detection means. This novel approach allows the decoding performance to be adapted to the noise power, and provides a reduction of the computational complexity. Simulation results obtained with and without complexity optimization are presented and compared in the context of the AIS system.

Lire la suite

Communications numériques / Localisation et navigation et Systèmes spatiaux de communication

Partial CRC-Assisted Error Correction of AIS Signals Received by Satellite

Auteurs : Prévost Raoul, Coulon Martial, Bonacci David, Le Maitre Julia, Millerioux Jean-Pierre et Tourneret Jean-Yves

In Proc. Int. Conf. Acoust., Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Florence, Italy, May 4-9, 2014.

Télécharger le document

This paper deals with the demodulation of automatic identification system (AIS) signals received by a satellite. More precisely, an error correction algorithm is presented, whose computational complexity is reduced with respect to that of a previously considered approach. This latter approach makes use of the cyclic redundancy check (CRC) of a message as redundancy, in order to correct transmission errors. In this paper, the CRC is also considered as a correction tool, but only a part of it is used for that purpose; the remaining part is only used as an error detection means. This novel approach allows the decoding performance to be adapted to the noise power, and provides a reduction of the computational complexity. Simulation results obtained with and without complexity optimization are presented and compared in the context of the AIS system.

Lire la suite

Communications numériques / Localisation et navigation et Systèmes spatiaux de communication

Ship Localization Using AIS Signals Received by Satellites

Auteurs : Prévost Raoul, Coulon Martial, Paimblanc Philippe, Le Maitre Julia, Millerioux Jean-Pierre et Tourneret Jean-Yves

In Proc. European Signal and Image Processing Conference (EUSIPCO), Marrakech, Morocco, September 9-13, 2013.

Télécharger le document

This paper addresses the problem of ship localization by using the messages received by satellites and transmitted by the automatic identification system (AIS). In particular, one considers the localization of ships that do not transmit their actual position in AIS signals. The proposed localization method is based on the least squares algorithm and uses the differences of times of arrival and the carrier frequencies of the messages received by satellite. A modification of this algorithm is proposed to take into account the displacement model of the ships as additional measurements. This modification shows a significant localization improvement.

Lire la suite

Traitement du signal et des images / Localisation et navigation et Systèmes spatiaux de communication

Poursuite de phase durant la démodulation et le décodage des signaux AIS reçus par satellite

Auteurs : Prévost Raoul, Coulon Martial, Bonacci David, Le Maitre Julia, Millerioux Jean-Pierre et Tourneret Jean-Yves

In Proc. Groupement de Recherche en Traitement du Signal et des Images (GRETSI), September 3-6, 2013.

Télécharger le document

This paper presents a demodulation algorithm for automatic identification system (AIS) signals received by a satellite. The main contribution of this work is to consider the phase recovery problem for an unknown modulation index, coupled with a time-varying phase shift. The proposed method is based on a demodulator introduced in a previous paper based on a Viterbi-type algorithm applied to an extended trellis. The states of this extended trellis are composed of a trellis-code state and of a cyclic redundancy check state. The bit stuffing mechanism is taken into account by defining specific conditional transitions in the extended trellis. This algorithm estimates and tracks the phase shift by modifying the Euclidean distance used in the trellis. Simulation results obtained with and without phase tracking are presented and compared in the context of the AIS system.

Lire la suite

Communications numériques / Localisation et navigation et Systèmes spatiaux de communication

Joint Phase-Recovery and Demodulation-Decoding of AIS Signals Received by Satellite

Auteurs : Prévost Raoul, Coulon Martial, Bonacci David, Le Maitre Julia, Millerioux Jean-Pierre et Tourneret Jean-Yves

In Proc. Int. Conf. Acoust., Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Vancouver, Canada, May 26-31, 2013.

Télécharger le document

This paper presents a demodulation algorithm for automatic identification system (AIS) signals received by a satellite. The main contribution of this work is to consider the phase recovery problem for an unknown modulation index, coupled with a time-varying phase shift. The proposed method is based on a demodulator introduced in a previous paper based on a Viterbi-type algorithm applied to an extended trellis. The states of this extended trellis are composed of a trellis-code state and of a cyclic redundancy check state. The bit stuffing mechanism is taken into account by defining special conditional transitions in the extended trellis. This algorithm estimates and tracks the phase shift by modifying the Euclidean distance used in the trellis. Simulation results obtained with and without phase tracking are presented and compared in the context of the AIS system.

Lire la suite

Communications numériques / Localisation et navigation et Systèmes spatiaux de communication

Extended Constrained Viterbi Algorithm for AIS Signals Received by Satellite

Auteurs : Prévost Raoul, Coulon Martial, Bonacci David, Le Maitre Julia, Millerioux Jean-Pierre et Tourneret Jean-Yves

In Proc. European Conference on Satellite Telecommunications (ESTEL), Rome, Italy, October 2-5, 2012.

Télécharger le document

This paper addresses the problem of error correction of AIS messages by using the a priori knowledge of some information in the messages. Indeed, the AIS recommendation sets a unique value or a range of values for certain fields in the messages. Moreover, the physics can limit the range of fields, such as the speed of the vessel or its position (given the position of the receiver). The repetition of the messages gives also some information. Indeed, the evolution of the ship position is limited between messages and the ship ID is known. The constrained demodulation algorithm presented in this article is an evolution of the constrained Viterbi algorithm (C-VA). It is based on a modified Viterbi algorithm that allows the constraints to be considered in order to correct transmission errors by using some new registers in the state variables. The constraints can be either a single value or a range of values for the message fields. Simulation results illustrate the algorithm performance in terms of bit error rate and packet error rate. The performance of the proposed algorithm is 2 dB better than that obtained with the receiver without constraints.

Lire la suite

Communications numériques / Localisation et navigation et Systèmes spatiaux de communication

Interference Mitigation and Error Correction Method for AIS Signals Received by Satellite

Auteurs : Prévost Raoul, Coulon Martial, Bonacci David, Le Maitre Julia, Millerioux Jean-Pierre et Tourneret Jean-Yves

In Proc. European Signal and Image Processing Conference (EUSIPCO), Bucharest, Romania, August 27-31, 2012.

Télécharger le document

This paper addresses the problem of error correction in a multi-user trellis coded system in the presence of bit stuffing. In particular, one considers the situation in which automatic identification system (AIS) signals are received by a satellite. The proposed receiver uses a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) for error correction. A Viterbi algorithm based on a so-called extended trellis is developed. This trellis is defined by extended states composed of a trellis-code state and a CRC state. Moreover, special conditional transitions are defined in order to take into account the possible presence of bit stuffing. The proposed algorithm was first developed in a single-user context. It is generalized in this paper to a multi-user scenario by designing an interference mitigation method. This method allows one to derive a demodulation algorithm whose complexity is almost identical to that obtained in the single-user context. Some performance results are presented in the context of AIS and compared with results provided by existing techniques.

Lire la suite

Communications numériques / Localisation et navigation et Systèmes spatiaux de communication

Advanced Concepts for Satellite Reception of AIS Messages

Auteurs : Bonacci David, Millerioux Jean-Pierre, Prévost Raoul, Le Maitre Julia, Coulon Martial et Tourneret Jean-Yves

In Proc. Toulouse Space Show (TSS), Toulouse, France, June 25-27, 2012.

Télécharger le document

This paper addresses the problem of demodulating messages received by a low-orbit satellite (altitude between 700 and 800 km) and transmitted by vessels using the Automatic Identification System (AIS). AIS is a Self-Organized Time Division Multiple Access (SO-TDMA) system, in which vessels periodically transmit information (mainly including MMSI – identification code of the ship– and its GPS position). The main application of the actual AIS system is collision avoidance between ships but a satellite reception would lead to a global supervision of maritime traffic, which could be of great interest for a lot of applications (military but also civil applications as fleet surveillance and monitoring).

Lire la suite

Communications numériques / Localisation et navigation et Systèmes spatiaux de communication

ADRESSE

7 boulevard de la Gare
31500 Toulouse
France

CONTACT


CNES
Thales Alenia Space
Collins Aerospace
SpaceAble
Toulouse INP
ISEA-SUPAERO
IPSA
ENAC
IMT Atlantique